Avocado tree: cultivation, reproduction and basic care
It is a leafy perennial tree with bright leaves and flowers that grow in clusters, its name is the avocado, Persea americana, and belongs to the Lauraceae botanical family.
This tree that gives us its fruit with an exquisite taste and is originally from Mexico, should be grown two or more to pollinate each other, it is a self-pollinating tree.
How to plant an avocado tree?
To cultivate this leafy tree, it is made in protected nurseries from late winter or early spring, it is suggested that when you sow the pepa or bone of the avocado it must be very clean and without waste.
A 2 cm thick cut is made at the finest end, to facilitate germination, and it is placed on the ground placing the widest part below and the part that has the cut upwards.
To finish, cover it lightly with soil, without pressing and watering it must keep the humidity constant during the time that the germination lasts. Next, the measures to obtain an excellent sowing:
Temperature: maintain the temperature of 20 °C, wait approximately 30 days for the bone to begin to germinate. Subsequently, the transplant must be made to the place where the final crop will be. Protect the avocado tree from the wind, motivated by the fact that its flowers, branches, fruits are vulnerable and pollination decreases.
Weather: this tree develops perfectly in temperate climates with humidity, can withstand temperatures of 10 °C.
Light: it should be grown in areas where it receives the sunlight directly.
Substratum: soils with a neutral pH, with drainage, something deep and loose. To strengthen the soil it is recommended to waterworm earthworm humus once a year, and decoctions of nettle and horsetail.
Irrigation: to obtain a good crop, it is necessary to regular irrigations and because the drought can cause the leaves to fall and if it has excess water can cause the fall of the fruits.
Pruning: Once the tree has matured, it must be done you prune once a year to eliminate branches that are damaged or too long.
Diseases or pests: excess water will appear fungi. And mites and worms can also be observed.
How long does it take to produce an avocado?
Once the sowing is done and providing all the care to be a productive and healthy crop, you have to wait to collect the first harvest 5 years and be able to enjoy this delicious fruit.
With the passing of each year the tree will give more yield will be more abundant harvest. It should be noted that a tree can bear fruit at least 20 years perfectly, you only have to prune one year and take care of the soil.
Tips for planting an avocado tree
- The seeds must be in perfect condition and washed to remove the residues.
- Take care of the seedbeds for 30 days with light and adequate humidity.
- Soils should not be too saline.
- It is a shallow root tree.
- Keep in mind that an adult tree usually grows around 20 meters tall.